In a small saucepan, combine the water, sugar, star anise, peppercorns, cloves, cinnamon sticks and ginger. Bring to a simmer over medium-high heat, stirring to dissolve the sugar.
Boil until reduced by half and thickened, about 15 minutes. Let the spice syrup cool, then strain into a glass jar. Note: The spice syrup can be refrigerated for up to 2 weeks.
Pour the red wine into a 3-quart pitcher. Stir in the orange juice, rum, brandy, Cointreau and ¼ cup of the spice syrup.
Taste and add more syrup if you prefer a sweeter sangria.
Add the sliced oranges, lime, apple and pear, and refrigerate overnight. Note: The sangria can be refrigerated for up to 4 days.
Stir in the club soda before serving. Serve the sangria in tall glasses over ice. Garnish with the sliced fruit.